However, even though it was known that quantum mechanics disagreed with the common sense, Newtonian view of reality, Aspect's experiment has definitely and completely confirmed this in a repeatable experimental situation--to the best of our knowledge quantum mechanics remains a perfectly good theory, just as it is.

It seems that somehow the actual outcome of the measurement here can effect the outcome of the measurement across the room. In the experiment an 'excited' atom decays and emits two photons in opposite directions. In particular, and for the purposes of this paper, this means that in certain experiments where measurements of a property of a quantum system like spin or polarization are correlated with each other, all locally real theories must predict correlations that fall within certain well defined limits--an upper limit of possible correlation between empirical measurements of properties of a quantum system is established.

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In other words, individual photons can deliver more or less energy, but only depending on their frequencies. Yet this is one consequence of rejecting the reality assumption, and thus is one of the major issues which physicists are trying to come to grips with today.

A photon of ultraviolet light delivers a high amount of energy â€”enough to contribute to cellular damage such as occurs in a sunburn.

The key lies in the word "satisfactorily"--if physicists were only concerned about the probability of predicting any particular quantum event, then all questioning ceases, as this is exactly what quantum mechanics does best; 8 but if physicists question why it is that our universe seems to be one in which quantum mechanics is a good theory, suddenly metaphysics enters the scene, center stage.

It is therefore pointless to think of an isolated quantum system as having definite properties, because we can never know what these properties are without measurement.

Second, such theories assume that there is always some sort of definite physical property that can account for any observed phenomenon. The key lies in the word "satisfactorily"--if physicists were only concerned about the probability of predicting any particular quantum event, then all questioning ceases, as this is exactly what quantum mechanics does best; 8 but if physicists question why it is that our universe seems to be one in which quantum mechanics is a good theory, suddenly metaphysics enters the scene, center stage.

The rejection of locally real theories means that at least one of the assumptions of the Bell Inequality must be false.

Since I deal with the idea of locally real theories throughout this paper, allow me to briefly summarize their major characteristics.

This question, however, brings up an important point, the elucidation of which has allowed the majority of physicists today to accept that reality is not a necessary assumption. They argued that since it is impossible for the measurement of P2 to actually interfere with P1 no action-at-a-distanceit follows that P1 must have had its particular polarization before the measurement of P2 was taken, and that our measurement is merely conforming with the independent and enduring reality of the actual polarization of P1.

When a gas is heated, it gives off light only at discrete frequencies. For instance, an electron that was already excited above the equilibrium level of the photoelectric device might be ejected when it absorbed uncharacteristically low frequency illumination.

These properties suggested a model in which electrons circle around the nucleus like planets orbiting a sun. This point is helpful in comprehending the distinction between the study of individual particles in quantum dynamics and the study of massed particles in classical physics.

As discussed above, Bell's initial assumptions were 'reality' and 'locality', but later it was shown by J. The problem is that quantum mechanics doesn't provide its own interpretation.

Interestingly, the most commonly accepted view of quantum mechanics called the Copenhagen interpretation after the city in which its inventor, Neils Bohr, worked rejects both outcome independence and reality.

In order to make it slightly less taxing to the reader unfamiliar with quantum mechanics, some explanatory background material is provided, but by no means do I present a complete introduction, as a sufficient literature exists for this particular purpose.

How could an actually existing object like the Moon be built up out of objects in a quantum realm that have no reality apart from our observation of them. Today, much of the debate about quantum mechanics is not about quantum mechanical theory as much as it is about the theory of quantum mechanics, or rather, the philosophy of quantum mechanics: Parameter independence states that the probability of an outcome of an observation on one particle is independent of the parameter chosen for the analyzer of the other particle.

Most physicists accepted Bohr's refutation of the EPR argument the specifics of which are not important herebut debate continued. The photon is directed to either of the two detectors by a switch through which the photon must pass.

Thus, when the tree falls in the forest and there is no one around to hear, it does make a sound. Subject: Image Created Date: 4/5/ AM. Quantum mechanics was built up on a foundation of analogy with the Hamiltonian theory of classical mechanics. This is because the classical notion of canonical coordinates and momenta was found to be one with a very simple quantum analogue, as a result of which the whole of the classical Hamiltonian theory, which is just a structure built up on.

Even though it was known that quantum mechanics was basically incompatible with a locally real view of reality since the 's, the major evidence for this rested only in the awesome predictive power of quantum mechanics--the fact that it just seemed to work. Quantum mechanics, however, does not satisfy Bell's Inequality 5; it predicts correlations that cross the boundaries delineated by the structure of the inequality.

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From The Community. Amazon Try He has read a paper on the "New" Quantum Mechanics written by. This thesis is an attempt to reconstruct the conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics. First, we argue that the wave function in quantum mechanics is a description of random discontinuous motion of particles, and the modulus square of the wave function gives the.

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