Finally, Inkeles notes the importance of selecting appropriate units of analysis, levels of analysis, and the time span for which convergence, divergence, or parallel change can be assessed. Despite the controversy over, and subsequent disillusionment with, early versions of convergence theory in the study of modernization, and the often mixed results of empirical studies discussed above, it is clear that the concept of societal convergence and convergence theories that allow for the possibility of divergence and invariance provides a useful and potentially powerful analytical framework within which to conduct cross-national studies across a broad range of social phenomena.
In a historical study of unemployment programs in thirteen Western European nations, Alber found no evidence that programs had become more alike in eligibility criteria, methods of financing, or generosity of benefits, although he did find some evidence of convergence in duration of unemployment benefits in nations with compulsory systems.
This differentiated them from countries such as Cuba that had land suitable for growing sugar and coffee. Although the authors did not specifically mention convergence, their conclusions were fully consistent with the idea of emergent similarities. It is a term and concept used to define various strands of religious and.
Also, beginning in the s, convergence theory was invoked to account for apparent similarities in industrial organization and patterns of stratification found in both capitalist and communist nations Sorokin ; Goldthorpe ; Galbraith The differences in productivity techniques is what separates the leading developed nations from the following developed nations, but by a margin narrow enough to give the following nations an opportunity to catch-up.
The study found that occupational-prestige rankings were markedly similar across all societies, raising the question of whether convergence theory or an explanation based on the functional imperatives of social structure of all complex societies, past or present, was most consistent with the empirical findings.
Inkeles argues that earlier versions of Dual-convergence thesis theory failed to distinguish adequately between different elements of the social system, which is problematic because these elements not only change at different speeds, but may move in opposite directions.
Appropriately reformulated, focused on elements of the social system amenable to empirical study, and stripped of the ideological baggage associated with its earlier versions, convergence theories hold promise to advance the understanding of the fundamental processes and regularities of social change.
Finally, interest in convergence has also been given a boost by various political developments in the s. Japan has been regarded as an exceptional case among industrialized nations because of its strong cultural traditions based on mutual obligation between employers and employees.
Inkeles also describes various forms that divergence may take: These comments echo earlier sentiments expressed by Weinberg and Baum about how to salvage the useful elements of standard convergence theory while avoiding the pitfalls of a simplistic functionalist-evolutionary approach.
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Swedish regional GDP — In the third stage, fertility rates begin to decline, with total size of the population leveling off or even decreasing.
A major obstacle in resolving the question involves disagreement on the nations chosen for study, selection and construction of measures see Uusitaloand judgments about the time frame appropriate for a definitive test of the convergence hypothesis.
However, the disagreement among these studies and scholars arguing for convergence may be simply a function of case selection.
Related to this idea is the notion of a relatively fixed pattern of development through which developing nations must pass as they modernize Rostow More specifically, Kerr et al.
Most importantly, several countries with low national income also have low growth rates. Structural-functionalist theorists, such as Parsons and Daviswhile not actually employing the terminology of convergence theory, paved the way for its development and use in modernization studies through their efforts to develop a systematic statement of the functional prerequisites and structural imperatives of modern industrial society; these include an occupational structure based on achievement rather than ascription, and the common application of universalistic rather than particularistic evaluative criteria.
Such countries did benefit from economies of scale and so had large plantation agriculture with slave labor, large income and class inequalities, and limited voting rights. The implication is that structural characteristics, and not initial national income, determine the long-run level of GDP per worker.
Moreover, the development of programs of the welfare state appears to be empirically correlated with distinct bureaucratic and demographic patterns that are in turn grounded in economic development. Limitations[ edit ] The fact that a country is poor does not guarantee that catch-up growth will be achieved.
The literature on globalization has several threads. It is possible to observe different "clubs" or groups of countries with similar growth trajectories. This paper uses a method devised by Geary and Stark to estimate regional GDPs for Essay writing main premise 24 Swedish provinces — A much broader challenge to the convergence hypothesis comes from studies focusing on variations in welfare-state development among western capitalist democracies.
It does not explain why some nations have had zero growth for many decades e. Finally, he specifies the different forms convergence and divergence may take: Indeed, in such respects as the development of large and expensive pension and health-care programs, of which the elderly are the major clientele, this is the case Coughlin and Armour ; Hage et al.
The continuing movement toward unification in Europe associated with the European Union EU, formerly the European Community represents another significant case of political and economic convergence on a regional scale. The attempt to discover common features of the class structure across advanced industrial societies is a central concern for social theorists of many stripes.
Finally, with respect to women in the labor force, the evidence of convergence is mixed. convergence” thesis, if we are to follow King et al.
methodological suggestion of testing the “observable implications of a theory” 14, then this thesis (Figure 2) is such an observable.
Full-Text Paper (PDF): Dual Convergence or Hybridization? Institutional Change in Italy and Greece from the Varieties of Capitalism Perspective. The dual convergence thesis starts from the assumption that there are two main political economic models (LMEs and CMEs) capable of achieving high performance in the new global environment.
The pressures from neo-liberal globalization and liberalization are expected to accentuate the differences between the two models forcing mid-spectrum cases to converge to either political-economic model. DUAL CONVERGENCE OR HYBRIDIZATION? INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE IN ITALY AND GREECE Divergence and Dual Convergence across The dual convergence thesis starts from the assumption that.
"Beta-convergence" on the other hand, occurs when poor economies grow faster than rich ones. Economists say that there is "conditional beta-convergence" when economies experience "beta-convergence" but conditional on other variables (namely the investment rate and the population growth rate) being held constant.
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